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Opteryx employs two primary security features designed to restrict user actions and data access within the platform. As Opteryx does not maintain a traditional user model, access is controlled through contextual information, such as AD Groups, rather than predefined user accounts. This framework supports the implementation of a traditional RBAC system if desired.

The two security features are:

1) Statement Execution Control which limits the types of queries can be executed by a user - for example limiting users to only successfully run SELECT or EXECUTE queries. 2) User Membership Restrictions which provides a mechanism to perform fine-grained, row-level access rules.

Statement Execution Controls

Opteryx provides mechanisms to restrict the types of SQL statements that users can execute.

This can be used to limit user's ability to perform certain actions on the engine; for example, limiting users to only perform EXECUTE queries.

Permissions Overview

Below is a table of permissions associated with their respective SQL commands:

Permission Query Keyword
SetVariable SET
ShowVariable SHOW


  • Analyze and Execute are not fully supported statements.
  • ShowVariable only applies to queries that are not one of the more specific SHOW query types.
  • Permissions exist for query types supported by the parser library but not supported by Opteryx.

Permissions are applied at the connection level using the permissions parameter, with the default setting allowing all queries.

import opteryx

conn = opteryx.connect(permissions={"Query"})
curr = conn.cursor()
# The user does not have permissions to execute a SHOW COLUMNS statement
# and this will raise a PermissionsError
    curr.execute("SHOW COLUMNS FROM $planets")
except opteryx.exceptions.PermissionsError:
    print("User does not have permission to execute this query")

Opteryx does not have any defined roles; however, we can implement a Role-Based access model using code similar to the below.

import opteryx

# Define which roles exist and the permissions each role has,
# `opteryx.constants.PERMISSIONS` is all available permissions.
role_permissions = {
    "admin": opteryx.constants.PERMISSIONS,
    "user": {"Query"}

def get_user_permissions(user_roles:list):
    # return the accumulated permissions for a user by appending
    # the permissions for each of the roles for that user
    permissions = set()
    for role in user_roles:
        if role in role_permissions:
            permissions |= role_permissions[role]
    return permissions

user_permissions = get_user_permissions(["user"])

# this can now be passed when creating a connection
conn = opteryx.connect(permissions=user_permissions)

In this code, we define a user_roles variable containing the roles assigned to a user and a role_permissions dictionary mapping each role to its permissions. The accumulated permissions for a user are computed and stored in the permissions variable.

Permissions can also be set using the short-form query API:

data = opteryx.query("SELECT * FROM $planets", permissions=user_permissions)

User Membership Restrictions

Opteryx supports user-specific data access by embedding user attributes directly into queries, enabling fine-grained control. This functionality isn't automatic; it requires explicit query formulation to incorporate data filtering based on user attributes.

Memberships are specified via the memberships parameter at the connection setup, making them accessible within queries through the @@user_memberships variable and the $user virtual table. By default, no memberships are configured (memberships=[]).

The following example demonstrates how to use array-type memberships to restrict data access:

import opteryx

conn = opteryx.connect(memberships=["Apollo 11"])
curr = conn.cursor()

# the missions field is an ARRAY
curr.execute("SELECT * FROM $astronauts WHERE ARRAY_CONTAINS_ANY(missions, @@user_memberships)")

Here is how you might test memberships where the attribute is a VARCHAR:

import opteryx

conn = opteryx.connect(memberships=["Apollo 11"])
curr = conn.cursor()

# the Missions field is a VARCHAR
curr.execute("SELECT $missions.* FROM $missions INNER JOIN $user ON Mission = value WHERE attribute = 'membership'")

Memberships can also be provided using the short-form query API:

data = opteryx.query("SELECT * FROM $planets", memberships=["Apollo 11"])

Memberships and permissions can be defined simultaneously and utilized in queries through both explicit SQL and the short-form query API.